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Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by infection with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. As one of the most common parasitic infections in humans, it affects a significant portion of the global population. In healthy individuals with a competent immune system, the infection may or may not cause any symptoms. However, it can cause blindness along with other severe consequences in congenitally infected children and immunocompromised individuals.

As the parasite remains in the body, it's always possible for the parasite to go from dormant to causing active infection when an individual becomes immunocompromised.

What is ocular toxoplasmosis?

Ocular toxoplasmosis is a common manifestation of the disease and the most frequent cause of posterior uveitis. Once the Toxoplasma gondii parasite reaches the retina, it can proliferate— invading other cells nearby and leading to an eye infection, acute inflammatory retinal lesion, retinochoroidal scarring, or potentially vision-threatening consequences. Clinical disease states are often recurrent whether ocular toxoplasmosis is a congenital disease or an acquired one.

Symptoms may vary based on age, location, size, and severity of the infection, including:

  • Eye pain and redness
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Blurred vision
  • Floaters
  • Decreased acuity due to macular involvement or vitreous inflammation


Treatment for ocular toxoplasmosis, including the type of drug therapy selected and duration, is tailored based upon the location, severity of the inflammation, the threat to vision, the status of the other eye, and an individual's immune state. While treatment can control episodes of infection, it cannot prevent recurrences. It may take several combinations of drugs for treatment to be effective.

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